Exploration of the Path of Anti ecological Poverty in the Ethnic Areas of the Luanhe River Basin
作者 : 未知

  Abstract:The Luanhe River basin is located in an area where agriculture and animal husbandry intersect. In 2017, seven counties in the basin were recognized as national poverty stricken counties; they are Wuyuan, Pingquan, Luanping, Longhua, Fengning, Weichang, and Kuancheng. It is worth noting that Chengde city  is the center of the basin, and the counties fan out to the north, northwest and northeast. The area where the seven counties are located has the following ecological characteristics: 1)It is a typical river source area,  located at north latitude 40°17′ ― 42°40′, dominated by mountains.  Not only do the tributaries of the Luanhe river system mostly derive from there, but some tributaries of the Chaobai River system and the Liaohe River system also originate from there.2)It is the water source for the urban areas of Beijing Tianjin Tangshan. The Miyun reservoir is the largest source of drinking water for Beijing, and its upstream tributaries are located in the same river source area as the Luanhe River. Tianjin and Tangshan divert water across the river basin via the Luanhe River Diversion Project, and the reservoirs in the basin are concentrated in six of the seven poor counties, excepting Longhua; 3)Manchu and the Mongolians are concentrated in this area. Its geographical location and history make it an important settlement of the Manchu. Weichang, Fengning and Kuancheng are Manchu autonomous counties, and there are several Manchu townships, Mongolian townships and Hui townships in Luanping county. Up to now, the mode of production in this area is still extensive(agriculture), and animal husbandry accounts for a large proportion.
  The natural ecology of the river basin is fragile. Once the ecologicalresources are reduced or human consumption increases, the balance between supply and demand might be broken, and this can easily lead to ecological poverty: 1)The construction of a secondary capital and the short term upheaval during the Qing dynasty resulted in serious ecological consequences. Modern day population migration and a colonial economy also exacerbate the ecological problems of the basin. After being positioned as the “Beijing Tianjin ecological hinterland” during the mid to late  20th century, its social and economic development was curbed, which, in turn, increased the regional poverty under an artificial ecological suppression; 2)The direct consequence of the environment problem of the water is the degradation of fisheries and animal husbandry. The northern latitude 40°, in which the seven counties are located, is known as the “Golden Ranch” and during the Qing Dynasty, it was the venue for the “ Autumnal Hunting Grounds”. With the decline of the water environment and the suppression of the protection of the Beijing Tianjin ecology, production became alienated in the seven counties, for example, pastures became degraded,  pastoral forests were converted, and fisheries were degraded. 3)The area has fallen into a poverty of culture, economy and ecology. The adjustment of administrative divisions in the middle of the 20th century served to intensify  the alienation of the area from the central city. At present, the basic education level of the rural labor force is mostly less than junior high school, and the counterforce of cultural poverty has further solidified the regions  economic  poverty. Acknowledging that the root of poverty in these seven counties lies in  the water environment of its rivers, we should learn from international and domestic experiences, and take the moderate recovery of river transport as our primary mission.   Promoting the restoration ofthe ecology of the river basins has become an important path to solving the problem: 1)In the middle and late 20th century, the West began to pay more attention to the ecological problems caused by modern transportations replacement of river transportation, and redeveloped rivers in order to achieve a win win in cost reduction and environmental protection.The Yongding and Chaobai Rivers, which are close to the location of the Luanhe River, have been well restored in recent years through ecological water replenishment and comprehensive management. 2)River transport is an ecological civilization. Through its natural power and traditional force, the river corridor plays an irreplaceable role in modern transportation. It not only enables the downstream industrialized civilization to pay back the upstream areas, but also enables the traditional ecological consciousness found in the upstream agriculture and animal husbandry areas where humans and water coexist to play a corrective role for the industrialization in the downstream areas. Therefore, a moderate recovery of water transport in the Luanhe River basin means the construction of a Beijing Tianjin green ecological hinterland, as well as a “bottom up” cultivation of the internal power of green governance in poor areas.
  The CPC 19th National Congress put forward a strategy for rural revitalization, focusing on the development of internal forces to supplement the shortcomings of external forces. However, in order to transform external forces into internal forces over which the residents in poor areas can exert the sense of ownership, we need a realistic approach. Inland river shipping based on “natural power” (of the rivers)forges a connection and relationship between mountainous areas and plains, between the countryside and the cities. Therefore, we should be keenly aware of its core role in regional poverty alleviation.
  Key Words:anti ecological poverty ;inland shipping ;Luanhe River basin
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